Since its founding in 1950, the department has maintained a tradition of excellence in the history of medicine where it is recognized as one of the leading research and educational programs in the field. In alliance with the History of Science program, it offers graduate study leading to M.A. and Ph.D. degrees in the history of American, European, and Colonial medicine and public health. Also available is a joint doctoral program with the Department of History. Graduate students are further encouraged to work in related fields, such as history (including the history of science, technology, and pharmacy), medical sociology, bioethics, and population health.